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Sign in or create an account. Hypomania is a lowered state of mania that does little to impair function or decrease quality of life.
In hypomania, there is less need for sleep and both goal-motivated behaviour and metabolism increase. Though the elevated mood and energy level typical of hypomania could be seen as a benefit, mania itself generally has many undesirable consequences including suicidal tendencies, and hypomania can, if the prominent mood is irritable rather than euphoric, be a rather unpleasant experience.
A single manic episode, in the absence of secondary causes, i. Hypomania may be indicative of bipolar II disorder. Certain of " obsessive-compulsive spectrum" disorders as well as impulse control disorders share the name "mania," namely, kleptomania , pyromania , and trichotillomania.
Despite the unfortunate association implied by the name, however, no connection exists between mania or bipolar disorder and these disorders.
B 12 deficiency can also cause characteristics of mania and psychosis. Hyperthyroidism can produce similar symptoms to those of mania, such as agitation, elevated mood, increased energy, hyperactivity, sleep disturbances and sometimes, especially in severe cases, psychosis.
To be classed as a manic episode, while the disturbed mood and an increase in goal directed activity or energy is present at least three or four if only irritability is present of the following must have been consistently present:.
Though the activities one participates in while in a manic state are not always negative, those with the potential to have negative outcomes are far more likely.
If the person is concurrently depressed, they are said to be having a mixed episode. The World Health Organization 's classification system defines a manic episode as one where mood is higher than the person's situation warrants and may vary from relaxed high spirits to barely controllable exuberance, accompanied by hyperactivity, a compulsion to speak, a reduced sleep requirement, difficulty sustaining attention and often increased distractibility.
Frequently, confidence and self-esteem are excessively enlarged, and grand, extravagant ideas are expressed.
Behavior that is out of character and risky, foolish or inappropriate may result from a loss of normal social restraint.
Some people also have physical symptoms, such as sweating, pacing, and weight loss. In full-blown mania, often the manic person will feel as though his or her goal s trump all else, that there are no consequences or that negative consequences would be minimal, and that they need not exercise restraint in the pursuit of what they are after.
The hypomanic person's connection with the external world, and its standards of interaction, remain intact, although intensity of moods is heightened.
But those who suffer from prolonged unresolved hypomania do run the risk of developing full mania, and indeed may cross that "line" without even realizing they have done so.
One of the signature symptoms of mania and to a lesser extent, hypomania is what many have described as racing thoughts. These are usually instances in which the manic person is excessively distracted by objectively unimportant stimuli.
Racing thoughts also interfere with the ability to fall asleep. Manic states are always relative to the normal state of intensity of the afflicted individual; thus, already irritable patients may find themselves losing their tempers even more quickly and an academically gifted person may, during the hypomanic stage, adopt seemingly "genius" characteristics and an ability to perform and articulate at a level far beyond that which would be capable during euthymia.
A very simple indicator of a manic state would be if a heretofore clinically depressed patient suddenly becomes inordinately energetic, cheerful, aggressive, or "over happy.
Individuals may also engage in out-of-character behavior during the episode, such as questionable business transactions, wasteful expenditures of money e.
These behaviours may increase stress in personal relationships, lead to problems at work and increase the risk of altercations with law enforcement.
There is a high risk of impulsively taking part in activities potentially harmful to self and others. Although "severely elevated mood" sounds somewhat desirable and enjoyable, the experience of mania is ultimately often quite unpleasant and sometimes disturbing, if not frightening, for the person involved and for those close to them, and it may lead to impulsive behaviour that may later be regretted.
It can also often be complicated by the sufferer's lack of judgment and insight regarding periods of exacerbation of characteristic states.
Manic patients are frequently grandiose, obsessive, impulsive, irritable, belligerent, and frequently deny anything is wrong with them.
Because mania frequently encourages high energy and decreased perception of need or ability to sleep, within a few days of a manic cycle, sleep-deprived psychosis may appear, further complicating the ability to think clearly.
Racing thoughts and misperceptions lead to frustration and decreased ability to communicate with others. In stages II and III mania, however, the patient may be extraordinarily irritable, psychotic or even delirious.
Various triggers have been associated with switching from euthymic or depressed states into mania. One common trigger of mania is antidepressant therapy.
Studies show that the risk of switching while on an antidepressant is between percent. Dopaminergic drugs such as reuptake inhibitors and dopamine agonists may also increase risk of switch.
Other medication possibly include glutaminergic agents and drugs that alter the HPA axis. Lifestyle triggers include irregular sleep wake schedules and sleep deprivation, as well as extremely emotional or stressful stimuli.
Various genes that have been implicated in genetic studies of bipolar have been manipulated in preclinical animal models to produce syndromes reflecting different aspects of mania.
CLOCK and DBP polymorphisms have been linked to bipolar in population studies, and behavioral changes induced by knockout are reversed by lithium treatment.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 has been genetically linked to bipolar, and found to be under-expressed in the cortex.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide has been associated with bipolar in gene linkage studies, and knockout in mice produces mania like-behavior.
Targets of various treatments such as GSK-3 , and ERK1 have also demonstrated mania like behavior in preclinical models. Mania may be associated with strokes, especially cerebral lesions in the right hemisphere.
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease has been associated with mania, especially with electrodes placed in the ventromedial STN.
A proposed mechanism involves increased excitatory input from the STN to dopaminergic nuclei. Mania can also be caused by physical trauma or illness.
When the causes are physical, it is called secondary mania. The mechanism underlying mania is unknown, but the neurocognitive profile of mania is highly consistent with dysfunction in the right prefrontal cortex, a common finding in neuroimaging studies.
Ist Englischmanie also gut oder schlecht? English So English mania is a turning point. English The world has a new mania. English Above all, my correspondents tell me that they are fed up with the EU's mania for bombarding the consumer with information.
English I would also subscribe to and support a European Year devoted to books and to reading, in view of our young people's widespread mania for television.
English The mania for budget consolidation in both the public and private sectors is directed too much towards cutting jobs and too little towards investment.
English This is where the Commission's preliminary draft Budget is rather timid, characterised by willing submission to the Council's mania for indiscriminate austerity measures.
English Once again this damage is caused by permissiveness, which, while it may satisfy the mania of some, remains a source of unhappiness for many others.
English A new phase of Brussels-inspired regulating mania would be neither use nor ornament in the fight against illicit work in the Member States of the European Union.
English I would ask you please to take note of that, for that is the reality, it is not a liberal or market programme or competition- mania or whatever you might call it.
English The proposal for a regulation on the common organisation of the market in ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is a truly magnificent example of a mania for inappropriate regulation.